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Granzyme-B Pathway

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.
 

Description

CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes) and NK (Natural Killer) cells are the key immune effectors that eradicate infected cells or tumors. To destroy these targets, CTLs and NK cells mostly use the granule exocytosis pathway, which releases perforin and Granzymes from cytolytic granules into the immunological synapse formed with the target. Granzyme-A and Granzyme-B, the most abundant Granzymes, are delivered to the target cell cytosol through perforin and independently induce cell death. Granzyme-B enters the target-cell cytosol by a poorly understood mechanism involving perforin. Granzyme-B induces apoptosis through Caspase-dependent and Caspase-independent mechanisms (Ref.1).

Granzyme-B is unique among serine proteases because, like cysteine protease Caspases, it cleaves after aspartic acid residues and thus activates Caspase-mediated apoptosis. It cleaves and activates the apical Caspase, [...]

References:

1.The ABCs of granule-mediated cytotoxicity: new weapons in the arsenal.
Lieberman J.
Nat Rev Immunol. 2003 May;3(5):361-70.
2.Granzyme B-mediated apoptosis proceeds predominantly through a Bcl-2-inhibitable mitochondrial pathway.
Pinkoski MJ, Waterhouse NJ, Heibein JA, Wolf BB, Kuwana T, Goldstein JC, Newmeyer DD, Bleackley RC, Green DR.
J Biol Chem. 2001 Apr 13;276(15):12060-7. Epub 2001 Jan 12.
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