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Growth Hormone Signaling

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Most aging individuals die from atherosclerosis, cancer, or dementia; but in the oldest old, loss of muscle strength resulting in frailty is the limiting factor for an individual s chances of living an independent life until death. Three hormonal systems show decreasing circulating hormone concentrations during normal aging: (i) estrogen (in menopause) and testosterone (in andropause), (ii) dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulphate (in adrenopause), and (iii) the growth hormone/IGF1 axis (in somatopause). Physical changes during aging have been considered physiologic, but there is evidence that some of these changes are related to this decline in hormonal activity. Science recognizes aging as a disease that can be reversed to a large degree by increasing GH (Growth Hormone) levels where they were in our [...]


1.Control of growth by the somatropic axis: growth hormone and the insulin-like growth factors have related and independent roles.
Butler AA, Le Roith D.
Annu Rev Physiol. 2001;63:141-64. Review.
2.Characterization of the growth hormone receptor in human dermal fibroblasts and liver during development.
Goodyer CG, Figueiredo RM, Krackovitch S, De Souza Li L, Manalo JA, Zogopoulos G.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Dec;281(6):E1213-20.
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