The cellular response to O2 (oxygen) is a central process in animal cells and figures prominently in the pathophysiology of several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. This process is coordinated by the HIF (Hypoxia-Inducible Factor) and its regulator, the pVHL (Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein). HIF1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that transactivates genes encoding proteins that participate in homeostatic responses to hypoxia. It induces expression of proteins controlling glucose metabolism, cell proliferation, and vascularization. Several genes involved in cellular differentiation are directly or indirectly regulated by hypoxia. These include Epo (Erythropoietin), LDHA (Lactate Dehydrogenase-A), ET1 (Endothelin-1), transferrin, transferrin receptor, VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor), Flk1, FLT1 (Fms-Related Tyrosine Kinase-1), PDGF-Beta (Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Beta), bFGF (basic Fibroblast Growth Factor), and others genes affecting glycolysis (Ref.1).
HIF1 consists [...]