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ICos-ICosL Pathway in T-Helper Cell

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.


During immune response, T-cells are optimally activated in secondary lymphoid tissues in order to properly migrate into areas of inflamed tissue. Upon antigen recognition via the TCR (T-Cell Receptor)/CD3 (CD3 Antigen) complex, a second co-stimulatory signal from APCs or Antigen-Presenting Cells is necessary for activation of naive T-cells. According to the “Two-Signal Model” for T-cell activation, although the engagement of TCR/CD3 by antigen/MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) products is essential for the initial stages of T-cell activation, a second signal termed a co-stimulatory signal is required for clonal expansion and functional differentiation of antigen-specific T-cells. T-cell activation induces co-stimulatory molecules, including the ICOS (Inducible Co-stimulator)/AILIM (Activation-Inducible Lymphocyte Immunomediatory Molecule), which is the third member of the CD28 (Antigen CD28) family and [...]


1.Impaired CD4 and CD8 effector function and decreased memory T cell populations in ICOS-deficient patients.
Takahashi N, Matsumoto K, Saito H, Nanki T, Miyasaka N, Kobata T, Azuma M, Lee SK, Mizutani S, Morio T.
J Immunol. 2009 May 1; 182(9):5515-27. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0803256...
2.Critical role of activation-inducible lymphocyte immunomediatory molecule/inducible costimulator in the effector function of human T cells:a comparative in vitro study of effects of its blockade and CD28blockade in human beings and monkeys.
Tajima N, Tezuka K, Tanaka M, Tanimoto M, Miyai A, Takeshima H, Watanabe Y.
Hum Immunol. 2008 Jul; 69(7):399-408. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2008.05.002. Epub 2008 Jun 17...
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