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Insulin Receptor Pathway

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.
 

Description

Insulin is the major hormone controlling critical energy functions such as glucose and lipid metabolism. Insulin elicits a diverse array of biological responses by binding to its specific receptor. The insulin receptor belongs to a subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases that includes the IGF (Insulin-like Growth Factor) receptor and the IRR (Insulin Receptor-Related Receptor). These receptors are tetrameric proteins consisting of two alpha and two beta subunits that function as allosteric enzymes in which the alpha subunit inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of the beta subunit. Insulin has diverse effects on cells including stimulation of glucose transport, gene expression and alterations of cell morphology. The hormone mediates these effects by activation of signaling pathways which utilize, i) adaptor molecules such [...]

References:

1.Insulin receptor signaling in normal and insulin-resistant states.
Boucher J, Kleinridders A, Kahn CR.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014 Jan 1;6(1). pii: a009191. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a009191. Review.
2.Minireview: nuclear insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors: a novel paradigm in signal transduction.
Sarfstein R, Werner H.
Endocrinology. 2013 May;154(5):1672-9. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-2165. Epub 2013 Mar 18. Review.
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