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JNK Pathway

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Description

MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) are Serine-threonine protein Kinases that are activated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and mediate signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. MAPKs are expressed in multiple cell types including Cardiomyocytes, Vascular Endothelial cells, and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Three major MAPKs include ERKs (Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinases), JNKs (c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein Kinases), and p38 Kinases. Members of the JNK/SAPK (Stress-Activated Protein Kinase) family of MAPKs are strongly stimulated by numerous Environmental Stresses, but also more modestly stimulated by Mitogens, Inflammatory Cytokines, Oncogenes, and inducers of Cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Ten mammalian JNK isoforms have been identified and are encoded by three distinct genes, JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3, the transcripts of which are [...]

References:

1.The JNK are important for development and survival of macrophages.
Himes SR, Sester DP, Ravasi T, Cronau SL, Sasmono T, Hume DA.
J Immunol. 2006 Feb 15;176(4):2219-28.
2.Islet-brain (IB)/JNK-interacting proteins (JIPs): future targets for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases?
Moulin N, Widmann C.
Curr Neurovasc Res. 2004 Apr;1(2):111-27.
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