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JNK Pathway

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.
 

Description

MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) are Serine-threonine protein Kinases that are activated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and mediate signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. MAPKs are expressed in multiple cell types including Cardiomyocytes, Vascular Endothelial cells, and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Three major MAPKs include ERKs (Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinases), JNKs (c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein Kinases), and p38 Kinases. Members of the JNK/SAPK (Stress-Activated Protein Kinase) family of MAPKs are strongly stimulated by numerous Environmental Stresses, but also more modestly stimulated by Mitogens, Inflammatory Cytokines, Oncogenes, and inducers of Cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Ten mammalian JNK isoforms have been identified and are encoded by three distinct genes, JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3, the transcripts of which are [...]

References:

1.Mammalian MAPK signal transduction pathways activated by stress and inflammation: a 10-year update.
Kyriakis JM, Avruch J.
Physiol Rev. 2012 Apr;92(2):689-737. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00028.2011. Review.
2.Disassembly of the JIP1/JNK molecular scaffold by caspase-3-mediated cleavage of JIP1 during apoptosis.
Vaishnav M, MacFarlane M, Dickens M.
Exp Cell Res. 2011 Apr 15;317(7):1028-39. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2011.01.011. Epub 2011 Jan 13.
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