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LPS Stimulated MAPK Signaling

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Endotoxin LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that potently promotes the activation of macrophages and microglia cells, which are important sensors of infection by bacteria, fungi, and viruses, in both the periphery and the CNS (Central Nervous System). There are several known LBP (LPS-Binding Proteins) present on macrophage membranes, including CD14, CD11b/18, and TLR (Toll-like Receptors). TLRs are mammalian homologs of the Drosophila Toll receptor and are involved in initiating innate immune defense against bacteria and fungi. CD14 lacks a transmembrane domain and is unable to initiate signals on its own. Thus, the TLR4 has emerged as a potential signaling partner for LPS/CD14 interactions(Ref.1).

The key downstream pathway for LPS-induced signaling events is the MAPK [...]


1.TLR4 Signaling Pathway Modulators as Potential Therapeutics in Inflammation and Sepsis.
Kuzmich NN, Sivak KV, Chubarev VN, Porozov YB, Savateeva-Lyubimova TN, Peri F.
Vaccines (Basel). 2017 Oct 4;5(4). pii: E34. doi: 10.3390/vaccines5040034. Review.
2.TLR4-induced NF-κB and MAPK signaling regulate the IL-6 mRNA stabilizing protein Arid5a.
Nyati KK, Masuda K, Zaman MM, Dubey PK, Millrine D, Chalise JP, Higa M, Li S, Standley DM, Saito K, Hanieh H, Kishimoto T.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2017 Mar 17;45(5):2687-2703. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx064.
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