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LPS Stimulated MAPK Signaling

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.


Endotoxin LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that potently promotes the activation of macrophages and microglia cells, which are important sensors of infection by bacteria, fungi, and viruses, in both the periphery and the CNS (Central Nervous System). There are several known LBP (LPS-Binding Proteins) present on macrophage membranes, including CD14, CD11b/18, and TLR (Toll-like Receptors) (Ref.1). TLRs are mammalian homologs of the Drosophila Toll receptor and are involved in initiating innate immune defense against bacteria and fungi. CD14 lacks a transmembrane domain and is unable to initiate signals on its own. Thus, the TLR4 has emerged as a potential signaling partner for LPS/CD14 interactions.

The key downstream pathway for LPS-induced signaling events is the [...]


1.LPS-binding proteins and receptors.
Fenton MJ, Golenbock DT
J Leukoc Biol. 1998 Jul; 64(1): 25-32. Review.
2.Biphasic activation of two mitogen-activated protein kinases during the cell cycle in mammalian cells.
Tamemoto H, Kadowaki T, Tobe K, Ueki K, Izumi T, Chatani Y, Kohno M, Kasuga M, Yazaki Y, Akanuma Y.
J Biol Chem. 1992 Oct 5; 267(28): 20293-7.
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