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Lysine Degradation in Human Liver

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In humans, Lysine is an essential amino acid, and there is no Lysine biosynthetic machinery. However, humans do degrade Lysine. Lysine is incorporated to Collagen, one of the most important components of Connective tissue and its supply is therefore required during embryonic development and early childhood (Ref.1). It is also important for Carnitine Synthesis. The main catabolic pathway for Lysine, via Saccharopine (e-N-(L-Glutaryl-2)-L-lysine), is a mitochondrial pathway leading to the formation of Acetyl-CoA (Acetyl-Coenzyme-A). Another Lysine degradation mechanism that is the Peroxisomal Pathway, via Pipecolic Acid is of less physiological importance and is mainly active in brain. The existence of two minor pathways for Lysine degradation, the Acetyllysine Pathway and the Lysine-Urea Cycle, remains to be demonstrated (Ref.2).

The Saccharopine Pathway, [...]


1.Simultaneous retention index analysis of urinary amino acids and carboxylic acids for graphic recognition of abnormal state.
Paik MJ, Lee HJ, Kim KR.
J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 2005 May 12.
2.Characterization of the human gene encoding alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase (AADAT).
Goh DL, Patel A, Thomas GH, Salomons GS, Schor DS, Jakobs C, Geraghty MT.
Mol. Genet. Metab. 2002 Jul;76(3):172-80.
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