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MAPK Pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans

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The MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) pathways are highly conserved signaling cascades that convert extracellular signals into various outputs. Each pathway is composed of three classes of protein kinase: MAPK, MAPKK (MAPK Kinase) and MAPKKK (MAPK Kinase Kinase). MAPK is activated by phosphorylation of specific tyrosine and threonine residues by a family of dual-specificity protein kinase MAPKKs. MAPKK is in turn activated by phosphorylation of serine and serine/threonine residues by a family of upstream MAPKKKs. Each of these upstream components plays a role in multiple cell signaling processes. The ERKs (Extracellular-signal Regulated Kinases), SAPK/JNKs (Stress-Activated Protein Kinases/c-Jun N-terminal Kinases), and p38 are the three best characterized subfamilies of MAP kinases and have representatives in all eukaryotes. In invertebrates, the corresponding MAPK [...]


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