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MIF Action Through Endocytic Pathway

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The cytokine MIF (Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor) is an integral mediator of the innate immune system. Monocytes and macrophages constitutively express large amounts of MIF, which is rapidly released after exposure to bacterial toxins and cytokines. MIF exerts potent proinflammatory activities and is an important cytokine of septic shock. MIF regulates innate immune responses to endotoxin and gram-negative bacteria by modulating the expression of TLR4 (Toll-Like Receptor-4), the signal-transducing molecule of the LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) receptor complex (Ref.1).

Cells may take up MIF by endocytosis — a process by which a cell s outer membrane engulfs extracellular substances (often in a nonspecific way) and imports them into the cell in membrane-bound vesicles or they can be transported to inside of the cell [...]


1.Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and host innate immune defenses against bacterial sepsis.
Calandra T, Froidevaux C, Martin C, Roger T.
J Infect Dis. 2003 Jun 15; 187 Suppl 2:S385-90.
2.Intracellular action of the cytokine MIF to modulate AP-1 activity and the cell cycle through Jab1.
Kleemann R, Hausser A, Geiger G, Mischke R, Burger-Kentischer A, Flieger O, Johannes FJ, Roger T, Calandra T, Kapurniotu A, Grell M, Finkelmeier D, Brunner H, Bernhagen J.
Nature. 2000 Nov 9;408(6809):211-6.
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