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Malate-Aspartate Shuttle

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Description

The Malate (L-Malic Acid)-Asp (Aspartate or L-Aspartate or Aspartic Acid) Shuttle of mammalian systems is more complex but more energy efficient. Mitochondrial NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) is reduced by cytosolic NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, Reduced) through the intermediate reduction and subsequent regeneration of OAA (Oxaloacetate) (Ref.1). In the cytosol, the shuttle converts OAA to Malate using the enzyme MDH1 (Malate Dehydrogenase-Cytoplasmic), and at the same time re-oxidizes NADH to NAD+, making it available for Glucose oxidation. Malate is then shuttled into the mitochondria by a Malate-Alpha-Ketoglutarate Transporter. In the mitochondria, the reverse reaction takes place and Malate is again converted to OAA by the enzyme MDH2 (Malate Dehydrogenase-Mitochondrial) (Ref.2). The shuttle is completed with a second enzyme, GOT2 (Glutamate Oxaloacetate [...]

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