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Nuclear Receptor Activation by Vitamin-A

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Retinoids (an analogue of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol)) and Retinoic Acid (a metabolite of Vitamin-A), regulate expression of target genes through binding and activation of the nuclear receptors like RARs (Retinoic Acid Receptors) and the RXRs (Retinoid X Receptors). all-trans-Retinoic Acid, the Carboxylic Acid form of Vitamin-A is of biological significance since it is predominant under most physiological situations. Biologically active ligands for the RARs and RXRs include all-trans-Retinoic Acid, 9-cis-Retinoic Acid, Retinoids among others, yet circulating levels of 9-cis-Retinoic Acid are much lower than those of all-trans-Retinoic Acid and the physiological significance of the isomerization all-trans-Retinoic Acid to 9-cis-Retinoic Acid and vice versa  is yet to be ascertained (Ref.1 & 2). The RARs are expressed at higher levels than the RXRs. [...]


1.Vitamin a deficiency in patients with common variable immunodeficiency.
Kilic SS, Kezer EY, Ilcol YO, Yakut T, Aydin S, Ulus IH.
J. Clin. Immunol. 2005 May;25(3):275-80.
2.Retinoids: versatile biological response modifiers of vascular smooth muscle phenotype.
Miano JM, Berk BC.
Circ. Res. 2000 Sep 1;87(5):355-62.
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