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Oxidation of Odd-Chain Fatty Acid

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.
 

Description

Most fatty acids have even number of carbon atoms and are therefore completely converted to Acetyl-CoA. Some plants and marine organisms, however, synthesize fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms. The final round of Beta-Oxidation of these fatty acids forms Propionyl-CoA, which is converted to Succinyl-CoA for entry into the Citric Acid Cycle. Propionyl-CoA can be derived from breakdown of certain amino acids (Isoleucine, Valine and Methionine), but in mammalian cells these pathways exist in mitochondria. Bacteria in the ruminant animal digestive system provide a source of propionate which eventually gets incorporated as odd-numbered fatty acids in milk fats, and this is the major source for human metabolism.

The conversion of Propionyl-CoA to Succinyl-CoA involves three enzymes. In the [...]

References:

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