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PACAP Signaling

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PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide) is a member of the secretin glucagon-VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide) family of peptides and is widely distributed in the brain and peripheral organs, notably in the endocrine pancreas, gonads, and respiratory and urogenital tracts. Within the CNS, PACAP serves as a neurotransmitter, neurohormone, neuromodulator, secretagogue, neurotrophic factor, neuroprotectant, and glial effector. The effects of PACAP are mediated through three types of GPCR (G-Protein Coupled Receptors): VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors (Type-II) bind PACAP and VIP with equal affinities, while PACAPR (Type-I; PACAP Receptor) specifically binds PACAP with high affinity. PACAPR is particularly abundant in the brain and pituitary and adrenal glands whereas VPAC receptors are expressed mainly in the lung, liver, and testis (Ref.1).

The PACAP precursor [...]


1.PACAP facilitate the nerve regeneration factors in the facial nerve injury.
Kimura H, Kawatani M, Ito E, Ishikawa K.
Regul Pept. 2004 Dec 15; 123(1-3):135-8.
2.Differential regulation of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein in rat astrocytes by VIP and PACAP.
Zusev M, Gozes I.
Regul Pept. 2004 Dec 15; 123(1-3):33-41.
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