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Repair of Uracil Residues

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Description

The integrity and accuracy of the DNA is of critical importance to the cell, but the organization of DNA into chromatin in eukaryotic cells afford little protection against formation of DNA base damage generated spontaneously through hydrolysis, since DNA remains hydrated in chromatin. Two frequently occurring hydrolytic reactions are depurination to produce non-coding abasic sites, and deamination of cytosine (C) to uracil (U) (Ref.1). Deamination of cytosine to uracil is one of the major pro-mutagenic events in DNA, causing G: C->A: T transition mutations if not repaired before replication. Uracil can also occur in DNA through misincorporation of dUMP (Deoxyuridine Monophosphate) opposite adenine (A) residues during replication to generate U: A base pairs, the rate of misincorporation being proportional to [...]

References:

1.Instability and decay of the primary structure of DNA.
Lindahl T.
Nature. 1993 Apr 22; 362(6422): 709-15. Review.
2.Methotrexate-induced misincorporation of uracil into DNA.
Goulian M, Bleile B, Tseng BY.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Apr; 77(4): 1956-60. No abstract available.
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