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TLR-TRIF Pathway

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.


TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are key molecules of the innate immune system that recognize molecular patterns on microorganisms and rapidly alert the host to the presence of potentially dangerous organisms. When TLRs on the surface of an immune cell are engaged, two major events are triggered downstream. First, all TLRs trigger the secretion of intercellular messenger proteins called cytokines, which initiate and perpetuate inflammation. In most cases, the production of inflammatory cytokines in response to TLR stimulation depends on a common molecular pathway that is anchored by an adaptor protein MyD88 (Myeloid Differentiation Primary Response Gene 88). This protein contains a structural region called a TIR (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor) domain, which allows it to associate with the intracellular tail of a TLR [...]


1.How we detect microbes and respond to them: the Toll-like receptors and their transducers.
Beutler B, Hoebe K, Du X, Ulevitch RJ.
J Leukoc Biol. 2003 Oct;74(4):479-85. Epub 2003 Jul 01.
2.Differential involvement of IFN-beta in Toll-like receptor-stimulated dendritic cell activation.
Hoshino K, Kaisho T, Iwabe T, Takeuchi O, Akira S.
Int Immunol. 2002 Oct;14(10):1225-31.
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