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TNF Signaling

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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with the capacity to induce apoptosis. It is enriched in the tumor microenvironment, promotes tumor growth and subverts innate immune responses to cancer cells. TNF is the best studied member of the TNF superfamily. TNF-alpha can bind to two related receptors, TNF receptors 1 and 2 (TNFR1 and TNFR2), which are also used by other, similar ligands. By binding to TNFR1 and TNFR2, TNF activates distinct signaling pathways important for cell proliferation, cell death and immune responses (Ref.1 and 2). TNFR1 is constitutively expressed in most cell types, whereas TNFR2 is typically restricted to certain subpopulations of immune cells such as CD4+ or CD8+ T cells and a few other cell types [...]


1.Looking beyond death: a morphogenetic role for the TNF signalling pathway.
Mathew SJ, Haubert D, Krönke M, Leptin M.
J Cell Sci. 2009 Jun 15;122(Pt 12):1939-46. doi: 10.1242/jcs.044487. Review.
2.TNF signaling drives myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation.
Zhao X, Rong L, Zhao X, Li X, Liu X, Deng J, Wu H, Xu X, Erben U, Wu P, Syrbe U, Sieper J, Qin Z.
J Clin Invest. 2012 Nov;122(11):4094-104. doi: 10.1172/JCI64115. Epub 2012 Oct 15.
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