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Toll Comparative Pathway

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.


During inflammation, which results from tissue injury, infection, or autoimmune diseases, such as RA (Rheumatoid Arthritis), cells release inflammatory mediators that give rise to the symptoms of inflammation. These symptoms include vascular changes, such as increased blood flow, and extravasations and activation of leukocytes. Inflammation can be triggered when proteins known as TLRs (Toll-Like Receptors) detect specific patterns of molecules derived from bacteria or viruses. The TLRs, which are expressed on the surface of cells of the immune system, are at the front line in the fight against invading microorganisms. In response to TLR engagement, an intracellular signaling cascade is set off that leads to the production of intercellular messenger proteins called cytokines (Ref.1).

Toll-like members differ from those in [...]


1.Immunology: a block at the toll gate
Mak TW, Yeh WC
Nature. 2002 Aug 22; 418(6900): 835-6. No abstract available
2.The spatzle gene encodes a component of the extracellular signaling pathway establishing the dorsal-ventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo
Morisato D, Anderson KV
Cell. 1994 Feb 25; 76(4): 677-88
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