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Toll-Like Receptors

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Description

TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are transmembrane proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system, which recognize invading microbes and activate signaling pathways that launch immune and inflammatory responses to destroy the invaders. Toll receptors were first identified in Drosophila. In mammals, the TLR family includes eleven proteins (TLR1−TLR11). Recently, two new members, and have been discovered in mouse, but not much information is known about them. Mammalian TLRs consist of an extracellular portion containing Leucine-rich repeats, a Transmembrane region and a Cytoplasmic tail, called the TIR (Toll-IL-1R (Interleukin-1-Receptor)) homology domain. Different TLRs serve as receptors for diverse ligands, including Bacterial cell wall components, Viral double-stranded RNA and small-molecule antiviral or immunomodulatory compounds (Ref.1). Activation of TLRs occurs after binding of [...]

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