About Us
Contact Us
Login to Protein Lounge!

Toll-Like Receptors

This image is a scaled-down version of the actual pathway image. It does not contain any links to the protein information pages.


TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are transmembrane proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system, which recognize invading microbes and activate signaling pathways that launch immune and inflammatory responses to destroy the invaders. Toll receptors were first identified in Drosophila. In mammals, the TLR family includes eleven proteins (TLR1−TLR11). Recently, two new members, and have been discovered in mouse, but not much information is known about them. Mammalian TLRs consist of an extracellular portion containing Leucine-rich repeats, a Transmembrane region and a Cytoplasmic tail, called the TIR (Toll-IL-1R (Interleukin-1-Receptor)) homology domain. Different TLRs serve as receptors for diverse ligands, including Bacterial cell wall components, Viral double-stranded RNA and small-molecule antiviral or immunomodulatory compounds (Ref.1). Activation of TLRs occurs after binding of [...]


1.Effects of air pollutants on innate immunity: the role of Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-likereceptors.
Bauer RN, Diaz-Sanchez D, Jaspers I.
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jan;129(1):14-24; quiz 25-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.11.004. Review.
2.Toll-like receptor signaling pathways.
Kawasaki T, Kawai T.
Front Immunol. 2014 Sep 25;5:461. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00461. eCollection 2014. Review.
You can get all the details on this pathway through subscription