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all-trans-Retinoic Acid Mediated Apoptosis

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Retinoic Acid, a lipophilic molecule and a metabolite of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), affects gene transcription and modulates a wide variety of biological processes like Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, including Apoptosis. Retinoic Acid mediated gene transcription depends on the rate of transport of Retinoic Acid to target cells and the timing of exposure of Retinoic Acid to RARs (Retinoic Acid Receptors) in the target tissues. The all-trans-Retinoic Acid, the Carboxylic Acid form of Vitamin-A is of biological significance since it has high circulating levels than other isomers of Retinoic Acid. The targets of all-trans-Retinoic Acid and RARs include a multitude of Structural genes, Oncogenes, Transcription Factors and Cytokines. Although biologically active ligands for the RARs also include 9-cis-Retinoic Acid among others, yet circulating [...]


1.Retinoic acid actions through mammalian nuclear receptors.
Huang P, Chandra V, Rastinejad F.
Chem Rev. 2014 Jan 8;114(1):233-54. doi: 10.1021/cr400161b. Epub 2013 Dec 5. Review. No abstract available.
2.Retinoic acid synthesis and functions in early embryonic development.
Kam RK, Deng Y, Chen Y, Zhao H.
Cell Biosci. 2012 Mar 22;2(1):11. doi: 10.1186/2045-3701-2-11.
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