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all-trans-Retinoic Acid Signaling in Brain

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Retinoic Acid, the active form of Vitamin-A (all-trans-Retinol), is a lipophilic molecule, and is known to affect gene transcription. Retinoic Acid is made available in the body through dietary intake and subsequent metabolism in the liver. Vitamin-A is secreted from its storage pools and circulates in blood. In the liver Vitamin-A is converted to all-trans-Retinoic acid, the Carboxylic Acid form of Vitamin-A and diffuses easily to the target tissues through cellular membranes; gets bound to CRABP (Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein) and produces its biological effects through the activation of RARs (Retinoic Acid Receptors). Although biologically active ligands for the RARs also include 9-cis-Retinoic Acid among others, yet circulating levels of 9-cis-Retinoic Acid are much lower than those of all-trans-Retinoic [...]


1.Retinoic acid-mediated phospholipase A2 signaling in the nucleus.
Farooqui AA, Antony P, Ong WY, Horrocks LA, Freysz L.
Brain. Res. Brain Res. Rev. 2004 Jul;45(3):179-95.
2.Retinoids: versatile biological response modifiers of vascular smooth muscle phenotype.
Miano JM, Berk BC.
Circ. Res. 2000 Sep 1;87(5):355-62.
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