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iNOS Signaling

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Microorganisms have developed several mechanisms to survive in their hosts environments. These include competition with their hosts for metal acquisition and resistance to host defenses such as NO (Nitric Oxide), a cytotoxic weapon generated by macrophages. In eukaryotic cells, NO is metabolically produced by NOS (NO Synthase) from L-Arginine, O2 (Molecular Oxygen), and NADPH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, Reduced). In macrophages, an inducible NO synthase (iNOS or NOS2) is produced after activation by endotoxins or cytokines and generates copious amounts of NO presumably to help kill or inhibit the growth of invading microorganisms or neoplastic tissue (Ref.1 & 2). Although iNOS was originally identified and characterized in macrophages, it is present in numerous cell types including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, vascular smooth [...]


1.Nitric oxide production in the sphenoidal sinus by the inducible and constitutive isozymes of nitric oxide synthase.
Petruson K, Stalfors J, Jacobsson KE, Ny L, Petruson B.
Rhinology. 2005 Mar; 43(1):18-23.
2.Down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by lysophosphatidic acid in human respiratory epithelial cells.
Kadowaki S, Chikumi H, Yamamoto H, Yoneda K, Yamasaki A, Sato K, Shimizu E.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2004 Jul; 262(1-2):51-9.
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