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p38 Signaling

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Cellular responses to many external stimuli involve the activation of several types of MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signaling pathways. MAPKs are a family of Serine/threonine kinases that comprise 3 major subgroups, namely, ERK (Extracellular signal–Regulated Kinase), p38 MAPK and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal Kinases). Despite the diversity in function and upstream signaling events, MAPKs are always activated by a highly conserved mechanism that involves phosphorylation on both a Thr (Threonine) and a Tyr (Tyrosine) residue catalyzed by a MAPK kinase. The phosphorylation motif Thr-Xaa-Tyr is located in the so called activation loop or T loop whose amino acid sequence varies among different MAPK subfamilies. Accordingly, there are different activating MAPK Kinases that in most cases are specific for each subgroup of MAPKs. p38 [...]


1.Activating p38 MAPK: new tricks for an old kinase.
Mittelstadt PR, Salvador JM, Fornace AJ Jr, Ashwell JD.
Cell Cycle. 2005 Sep;4(9):1189-92. Epub 2005 Sep 20.
2.The p38 MAPK signaling pathway: A major regulator of skeletal muscle development.
Keren A, Tamir Y, Bengal E.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006 Apr 24;
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