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Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism in T. maritima
T. maritima (Thermotoga maritima), is an anerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium which usually grows singly or in pairs. The organism has an optimum growth temperature of 80 degrees centigrade. T. maritima metabolizes many simple and complex carbohydrates, keto-acids, etc. to fuels such as Hydrogen. The metabolism of amino acids like Glycine, [...]
Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism in T. tengcongensis
T. tengcongensis (Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis) is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative, anaerobic eubacterium that metabolizes sugars as the principal source of energy and carbon source, and gains energy anaerobically by Sulfur respiration. T. tengcongensis has a complete collection of genes involved in most of the amino acid biosynthetic pathways for Threonine, Valine, Leucine, [...]
Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism in T. thermophilus HB27
T. thermophilus (Thermus thermophilus) is a Gram-negative, aerobic eubacterium which grows at temperatures ranging from 50 to 82 degrees Centigrade. The organism, T. thermophilus strain HB27 grows in a natural thermal environment with an optimal growth at 68 degrees Centigrade and pH 7.0. Most extreme thermophiles that live in geothermal [...]
Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism in T. thermophilus HB8
The organism T. thermophilus HB8 (Thermus thermophilus HB8) is a Gram-negative eubacterium that grows in a natural thermal environment with temperatures ranging from 50 to 82 degrees Centigrade. Unlike other extreme anaerobic thermophiles, the Thermus species are an exception, as they are strict aerobic chemorganotrophs. Although aerobic, T. thermophilus HB8 [...]
Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism in Y. pestis CO92
Y. pestis (Yersinia pestis), the Gram-negative Coccobacillus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae is the causative agent of Plague and is arguably the deadliest pathogen in history. It is one of several agents likely to be used as a biological weapon in a bioterrorism event. Yersinia sp. is responsible for disease syndromes [...]
Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism in Y. pestis KIM
Y. pestis (Yersinia pestis) strand KIM belongs to biovar Mediaevalis. Y. pestis is actually catagorized into three subtypes or biovars; Antiqua, Medievalis, and Orientalis, each associated with a major pandemic and it is believed that Y. pestis is a clone that evolved from Y. pseudotuberculosis (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis) about 1.5 to [...]
Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism in Y. pestis Mediaevails
Y. pestis (Yersinia pestis) is rod shaped, Gram-negative, and non-motile but has two distinct flagellar gene clusters; one set is incomplete and the other produces a truncated protein, which acts as a transcriptional activator for the flagellar genes. Y. pestis, a Group-A bioterrorism agent, causes Plague, a re-emerging zoonotic disease [...]
Glycine, Serine and Threonine Metabolism in Y. pseudotuberculosis
The genus Yersinia is known to include eleven species, three of which are potentially pathogenic to humans; Y. pestis (Yersinia pestis), Y. pseudotuberculosis (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis), and Y. enterocolitica (Yersinia enterocolitica). Y. pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative Coccobacillus belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The designation pseudotuberculosis derives from the characteristic histopathological aspect [...]
IAA Biosynthesis in A. thaliana
Auxin is a classic Phytohormone involved in a myriad of Developmental and Environmental Processes: Embryo Patterning, Cell Division and Elongation, Vascular Differentiation, Lateral Root Initiation, Gravitropism, and Phototropism. Though many natural and synthetic compounds exhibit Auxin-like activity in bioassays, IAA (Indole-3-Acetic Acid) is recognized as the key Auxin in most [...]
Jasmonate Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis
JAs (Jasmonates) are potent Lipid Regulators of Defense gene expression and act in development where they are necessary for fertility. The Jasmonate Pathway performs critical roles in Plant Defense, Development, and Metabolism, and it has received its name from MJ (Methyl Jasmonate), a fragrance from scented Jasmine flowers long used [...]
Lactose Synthesis
Lactose (or D-Lactose) is a disaccharide composed of Galactose (or Galactose) and Glucose (or D-Glucose). It occurs only in milk. It is the primary carbohydrate in milk of most species. Lactose is synthesized in mammary glands. Two Glucose molecules are required for each Lactose molecule synthesized. One Glucose is converted [...]
Leloir Pathway for Galactose Metabolism
In most organisms, the conversion of Galactose to the more metabolically useful Glucose-1-Phosphate is accomplished by the action of four enzymes that constitute the Leloir pathway. In the first step of this pathway, Beta-D-Galactose is epimerized to Alpha-D-Galactose by GALM (Galactose Mutarotase/Aldose 1-Epimerase) (Ref.1). The active site of GALM is [...]
Lysine Degradation in Human Liver
In humans, Lysine is an essential amino acid, and there is no Lysine biosynthetic machinery. However, humans do degrade Lysine. Lysine is incorporated to Collagen, one of the most important components of Connective tissue and its supply is therefore required during embryonic development and early childhood (Ref.1). It is also [...]
Malate-Aspartate Shuttle
The Malate (L-Malic Acid)-Asp (Aspartate or L-Aspartate or Aspartic Acid) Shuttle of mammalian systems is more complex but more energy efficient. Mitochondrial NAD+ (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) is reduced by cytosolic NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide, Reduced) through the intermediate reduction and subsequent regeneration of OAA (Oxaloacetate) (Ref.1). In the cytosol, the [...]
Metabolic States and Circadian Oscillators
In organisms as diverse as fruit flies and mammals, circadian rhythms are controlled by a transcriptional feedback system whose activity fluctuates as a function of the light-dark cycle. In mammals, the master clock (circadian pacemaker) resides in the SCN (Suprachiasmatic Nucleus) of the brain's hypothalamus and this endogenous clock drives [...]
Mitochondrial CPT System
Carnitine (L-Carnitine or 3-hydroxy-4-(trimethylammonio) butanoate) and its Acyl-Esters (Acyl-Carnitines or ROC-Carnitine) are essential compounds for the metabolism of fatty acids (or RCOOH compounds). Carnitine is synthesized de novo in animal cells, but it is believed that most comes from the diet. Its main function is to assist the transport and [...]
Oxidation of Odd-Chain Fatty Acid
Most fatty acids have even number of carbon atoms and are therefore completely converted to Acetyl-CoA. Some plants and marine organisms, however, synthesize fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms. The final round of Beta-Oxidation of these fatty acids forms Propionyl-CoA, which is converted to Succinyl-CoA for entry [...]
Oxidation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
Unsaturated fatty acids are Beta-oxidized in the normal pathway as far as possible. However, polyunsaturation or unsaturation at odd positions produces a molecule that the major pathways cannot utilize as a substrate. To solve this problem, a number of enzymes exist in the peroxisome to convert these molecules to appropriate [...]
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae
PC (Phosphatidylcholine) is the most abundant Phospholipid in the yeast S. cerevisiae (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and the major Phospholipid present in eucaryotic cell membranes. It serves as a major structural component of cellular membranes and as a source of several lipid messengers. There are two pathways for PC synthesis in yeast, [...]
Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis Pathway
Phosphatidylcholine (once given the trivial name 'lecithin') is usually the most abundant phospholipid in animal and plants, often amounting to almost 50% of the total, and as such it is the key building block of membrane bilayers. In particular, it makes up a very high proportion of the outer leaflet [...]
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