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Estrogen Signaling

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Description

Estrogens play important roles in growth, development, reproduction, and maintenance of a diverse range of mammalian tissues. The physiological effects of estrogens are mediated by the intracellular ERs (Estrogen Receptors), which regulate transcription of target genes through binding to specific DNA target sequences. The ERs orchestrate both transcriptional and non-genomic functions in response to estrogens, xenoestrogens and signals emanating from growth factor signalling pathways. The pleiotropic and tissue-specific effects of estrogens are mediated by the differential expression of two distinct ER subtypes: ER-Alpha and ER-Beta, and their coregulators (Ref.1). The activities of a plethora of ER-interacting proteins converge to confer distinct functionalities on ERs, including the activation and repression of transcription, the integration of intracellular signaling pathways and the control [...]

References:

1.Estrogen receptors: orchestrators of pleiotropic cellular responses.
Moggs JG, Orphanides G.
EMBO Rep. 2001 Sep;2(9):775-81. Review.
2.Novel aspects of estrogen action.
Gustafsson JA.
J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2000 Jan-Feb;7(1 Suppl):S8-9. Review.
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