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PTEN Pathway PTEN Pathway Thursday, November 13, 2014
Tumorigenesis is the result of abnormal activation of growth programs in the cells. Cancer cells escape normal growth control mechanisms as a consequence of activating mutations, or increased expression of one or more cellular protooncogenes, and/or inactivating mutations, or decreased expression of one or more tumor suppressor genes. Most oncogene and tumor [...]
IGF1R Signaling IGF1R Signaling Wednesday, October 29, 2014
Programmed cell death, a form of altruistic suicide is a genetically controlled means of cellular self-destruction that leads to dismantling and packaging of cell material for removal by phagocytosis. All cells possess the ability to undergo programmed cell death (otherwise known as apoptosis), and the process is essential for normal development to [...]
BRCA1 Pathway BRCA1 Pathway Monday, October 27, 2014
The maintenance of genome integrity is essential to all life, but is particularly important to long-lived multicellular organisms, which are susceptible to cancer. DNA damage can take the form of base modifications, strand breaks, interstrand cross-links and other lesions. To deal with many types of damage, genomes have evolved multiple cellular defense [...]
Akt Signaling Akt Signaling Friday, October 24, 2014
Akt (v-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene)/ PKB (Protein Kinase-B) is a Serine/threonine Kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of Apoptosis and stimulation of cell proliferation. Three mammalian isoforms are currently known: Akt1/PKB- Alpha, Akt2/PKB-Beta and Akt3/PKB-Gamma. All three isoforms of Akt share a common structure of three domains. [...]
PI3K Signaling PI3K Signaling Friday, September 19, 2014
The PI3K (Phosphatidylinositde-3-Kinase) family of enzymes regulate diverse biological functions in every cell type by generating lipid second messengers that ultimately results in the mediation of cellular activities such as proliferation, differentiation, chemotaxis, survival, trafficking and Glucose homeostasis. On the basis of structural similarities, the PI3K members are sub-divided into three classes; Class I, II
Granzyme Pathway Granzyme Pathway Tuesday, September 09, 2014
Lymphocytes play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses. A key function of CL (Cytotoxic Lymphocytes) is to detect and eliminate potentially harmful cells by inducing them to undergo apoptosis. The induction of cell death by CTLs (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes) or NK (Natural Killer) cells is one of the main ways by which [...]
CXCR4 Pathway CXCR4 Pathway Tuesday, September 09, 2014
The Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a 352 amino acid rhodopsin-like GPCR and selectively binds the CXC chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) also known as CXCL12. Classically, two alternatively spliced isoforms of SDF have been identified. SDF-1Alpha is an 89 amino acid protein that is the predominantly expressed form of SDF-1 while [...]
Nur77-Induced AICD in Macrophage Nur77-Induced AICD in Macrophage Thursday, September 04, 2014
PCD (Programmed Cell Death), often referred to as Apoptosis, is a genetically regulated, self-destructive cellular process found in metazoans. It eliminates individual cells when they are no longer needed in development, tissue remodeling, or immune regulation, as well as in various diseases. In immune cells, Apoptosis is a key phenomenon in AICD [...]