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CD40 Signaling CD40 Signaling Wednesday, September 26, 2018
CD40, a TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) family member, conveys signals regulating diverse cellular responses, ranging from proliferation and differentiation to growth suppression and cell death. First identified and functionally characterized on B-Cells, CD40 is expressed on a plethora of different cell types, including B-Cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts, [...]
ATM Pathway ATM Pathway Wednesday, September 26, 2018
ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein) belongs to a family of Kinases that have sequence homology to PI3K (Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase).ATM is a key regulator of multiple signaling cascades which respond to DNA strand breaks induced by damaging agents IR (Ionizing Radiation), radiometric agents or by normal processes. These responses involve the activation of [...]
Apoptosis through Death Receptors Apoptosis through Death Receptors Wednesday, September 26, 2018
Apoptosis is a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number in tissues and to eliminate individual cells that threaten the animal's survival. Certain cells have unique sensors, termed DR (Death Receptors), on their surface, which detect the presence of extracellular death signals and, in response; they rapidly ignite the [...]
Fas Signaling Fas Signaling Wednesday, September 26, 2018
Fas (also called Apo1 or CD95) is a death domain-containing member of the TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) superfamily. It has a central role in the physiological regulation of Programmed Cell Death and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and diseases of the immune system. Although the FasL (Fas [...]
Cell Cycle Control of Chromosomal Replication Cell Cycle Control of Chromosomal Replication Wednesday, September 26, 2018
The stable propagation of genetic information requires that the entire genome of an organism be faithfully replicated only once in each cell cycle. In eukaryotes, this replication is initiated at hundreds to thousands of replication origins distributed over the genome, each of which must be prohibited from re-initiating DNA replication within every [...]
Cell Cycle Control by BTG Proteins Cell Cycle Control by BTG Proteins Wednesday, September 26, 2018
BTG2 (BTG Family Member-2) is endowed with antiproliferative activity. The expression of BTG2 in cycling cells induces accumulation of hypophosphorylated, growth-inhibitory forms of Rb (Retinoblastoma) and led to G1 arrest through impairment of DNA synthesis. Overexpression of CcnD1 (Cyclin-D1) counteracts G1 arrest. Rb is a nuclear phosphoprotein whose phosphorylation state oscillates regularly [...]
Breast Cancer Regulation by Stathmin1 Breast Cancer Regulation by Stathmin1 Wednesday, September 26, 2018
Stmn1 (Stathmin-1) also referred to as Op18 (Oncoprotein-18) is a major regulator of microtubule dynamics. It is an evolutionarily well conserved 17 kDa cytoplasmic phosphoprotein that is highly expressed in a wide variety of cancers and its high abundance seems to be necessary for the maintenance of the transformed phenotypes.
CD27 Pathway CD27 Pathway Tuesday, September 25, 2018
Members of the TNFR (Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor) superfamily are important for cell growth and survival. CD27 is a member of the TNFR superfamily, which includes TNFR types I and II, NGFR (Nerve Growth Factor Receptor), CD30 (associated with Hodgkin lymphoma), Fas/Apo1 (CD95), CD40, 4–1BB, and OX40. These receptors are known to [...]