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ERK Signaling ERK Signaling Tuesday, March 03, 2015
The MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) pathway is one of the primordial signaling systems that nature has used in several permutations to accomplish an amazing variety of tasks. It exists in all eukaryotes, and controls such fundamental cellular processes as Proliferation, Differentiation, Survival and Apoptosis. Mammalian MAPK can be divided into four groups [...]
Notch Signaling Notch Signaling Thursday, February 19, 2015
The Notch signaling pathway is a fundamental signaling system used by neighboring cells to communicate with each other in order to assume their proper developmental role. Notch proteins are cell surface transmembrane-spanning receptors which mediate critically important cellular functions through direct cell-cell contact. Interaction between Notch and its proposed ligands initiates a [...]
IL-2 Pathway IL-2 Pathway Thursday, February 19, 2015
IL-2 (Interleukin-2) is a T-Cell-derived cytokine important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of T-Cells, B-Cells, natural killer cells, glioma cells, and cells of the monocyte lineage after specifically interacting with its receptors. Human IL-2 is a 133-amino acid polypeptide with a molecular mass of 15-18 kDa. IL-2 signaling is mediated by a multichain receptor [...]
Glioma Invasiveness Glioma Invasiveness Thursday, February 19, 2015
Gliomas are the most common intracranial malignant tumors in humans, and high-grade Gliomas in particular pose a unique challenge due to their propensity for proliferation and tissue invasion (Ref.1). The invasion of neoplastic cells into healthy brain tissue is a pathologic hallmark of Gliomas and contributes to the failure of current therapeutic [...]
p53 Signaling p53 Signaling Friday, January 23, 2015
p53 is a tumour suppressor protein that regulates the expression of a wide variety of genes involved in Apoptosis, Growth arrest, Inhibition of cell cycle progression, Differentiation and accelerated DNA repair or Senescence in response to Genotoxic or Cellular Stress. As a transcription factor, p53 is composed of an N-terminal Activation Domain, a central [...]
Actin Nucleation and Branching Actin Nucleation and Branching Wednesday, January 21, 2015
The actin family is a diverse and evolutionarily ancient group of proteins that provide the supportive framework to the three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic cells. It provides the forces that enable the cell to adopt a variety of shapes and to undertake directed movements. Certain cell types, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocyte/macrophages, and [...]
PI3K Signaling PI3K Signaling Tuesday, January 06, 2015
The PI3K (Phosphatidylinositde-3-Kinase) family of enzymes regulate diverse biological functions in every cell type by generating lipid second messengers that ultimately results in the mediation of cellular activities such as proliferation, differentiation, chemotaxis, survival, trafficking and Glucose homeostasis. On the basis of structural similarities, the PI3K members are sub-divided into three classes; Class I, II
CXCR4 Pathway CXCR4 Pathway Thursday, January 01, 2015
The Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a 352 amino acid rhodopsin-like GPCR and selectively binds the CXC chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) also known as CXCL12. Classically, two alternatively spliced isoforms of SDF have been identified. SDF-1Alpha is an 89 amino acid protein that is the predominantly expressed form of SDF-1 while [...]