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MAPK Signaling MAPK Signaling Tuesday, August 19, 2014
Intracellular signaling cascades are the main routes of communication between the Plasma membrane and regulatory targets in various intracellular compartments. Sequential activation of Kinases is a common mechanism of signal transduction in many cellular processes. During the past decade, several related intracellular signaling cascades have been elucidated, which are collectively known as [...]
Checkpoint Comparative Pathways Checkpoint Comparative Pathways Tuesday, August 19, 2014
Cells activate checkpoint pathways in response to DNA damage or a block to replication, that prevent cell cycle progression by inhibiting the basic cell cycle machinery until the problem is fixed. Various forms of DNA damage and various treatments that block replication trigger these checkpoints. Recent work on the mechanisms of DNA [...]
Signaling Involved in Cardiac Hypertrophy Signaling Involved in Cardiac Hypertrophy Sunday, August 17, 2014
Myocardial hypertrophy is an adaptational response of the heart to increased work load, but it is also associated with a high risk of cardiac mortality due to its established role in the development of cardiac failure, one of the leading causes of death in developed countries (Ref.1). The hypertrophic growth of the [...]
Androgen Signaling Androgen Signaling Tuesday, August 12, 2014
Androgens are recognized as genotropic inducers of a number of physiological functions mainly associated with the development of sexual characteristics. Androgens promote the growth and differentiation of prostate cells through ligand activation of the AR (Androgen Receptor) (Ref.1&2).The AR, upon activation
Granzyme-B Pathway Granzyme-B Pathway Monday, August 11, 2014
CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes) and NK (Natural Killer) cells are the key immune effectors that eradicate infected cells or tumors. To destroy these targets, CTLs and NK cells mostly use the granule exocytosis pathway, which releases perforin and Granzymes from cytolytic granules into the immunological synapse formed with the target. Granzyme-A and [...]
Granzyme Pathway Granzyme Pathway Sunday, August 10, 2014
Lymphocytes play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses. A key function of CL (Cytotoxic Lymphocytes) is to detect and eliminate potentially harmful cells by inducing them to undergo apoptosis. The induction of cell death by CTLs (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes) or NK (Natural Killer) cells is one of the main ways by which [...]
Granzyme-A Pathway Granzyme-A Pathway Friday, August 08, 2014
CTLs (Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes) and NK (Natural Killer) cells are the key immune effectors that eradicate infected cells or tumors. To destroy these targets, CTLs and NK cells mostly use the granule exocytosis pathway, which releases perforin and Granzymes from cytolytic granules into the immunological synapse formed with the target. Granzyme-A and [...]
mTOR Pathway mTOR Pathway Thursday, August 07, 2014
mTOR (Mammalian Target of Rapamycin) is a 289-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the PIKK (Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-related Kinase) family. The protein consists of a Catalytic Kinase domain, an FRB (FKBP12–Rapamycin Binding) domain, a putative Auto-inhibitory domain (Repressor domain) near the C-terminus and up to 20 tandemly repeated HEAT motifs at [...]