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Growth Hormone Signaling Growth Hormone Signaling Friday, December 07, 2018
Most aging individuals die from atherosclerosis, cancer, or dementia; but in the oldest old, loss of muscle strength resulting in frailty is the limiting factor for an individual's chances of living an independent life until death. Three hormonal systems show decreasing circulating hormone concentrations during normal aging: (i) estrogen (in menopause) and [...]
Apoptotic Pathways Triggered By HIV1 Apoptotic Pathways Triggered By HIV1 Sunday, December 02, 2018
Apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis are the three major ways of PCD(programed cell death) following virus infection. Among them, apoptosis is the most extensively investigated PCD during viral infection. Apoptosis elicited by virus infection has both negative and positive influence on viral replication.
Fanconi’s Anaemia Pathway Fanconi’s Anaemia Pathway Thursday, November 29, 2018
A number of inherited (constitutional/genetic) disorders are characterized by BM (Bone Marrow) failure usually in association with one or more somatic abnormality. The BM failure may involve all or a single lineage; in some cases it may be initially associated with a single peripheral cytopenia and then progress to pancytopenia. Scientifically, they [...]
Assembly of RNA Polymerase-I Initiation Complex Assembly of RNA Polymerase-I Initiation Complex Thursday, November 29, 2018
The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. The RNA polymerase moves stepwise along the DNA, unwinding [...]
Assembly of RNA Polymerase-II Initiation Complex Assembly of RNA Polymerase-II Initiation Complex Thursday, November 29, 2018
The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. Each eukaryotic RNA Polymerase catalyzes transcription of genes encoding [...]
Assembly of RNA Polymerase-III Initiation Complex Assembly of RNA Polymerase-III Initiation Complex Thursday, November 29, 2018
The nuclei of all eukaryotic cells contain three different RNA Polymerases, designated I, II and III. Like the DNA Polymerase that catalyzes DNA replication, RNA Polymerases catalyze the formation of the phosphodiester bonds that link the nucleotides together to form a linear chain. Each eukaryotic RNA Polymerase catalyzes transcription of genes encoding [...]
FAK1 Signaling FAK1 Signaling Wednesday, November 28, 2018
Engagement of integrin receptors with extracellular ligands gives rise to the formation of complex multi-protein structures that link the ECM (Extracellular Matrix) to the cytoplasmic actin cytoskeleton and signaling proteins including Talin, Alpha-actinin, Vinculin, Zyxin, Paxillin and FAK (Focal Adhesion Kinase). These adhesive complexes are dynamic, often heterogeneous structures, varying in size [...]
GPCR Pathway GPCR Pathway Monday, November 26, 2018
GPCRs (Guanine Nucleotide Binding–Protein Coupled Receptors) comprise large and diverse gene families in fungi, plants, and the animal kingdom. Also termed serpentine receptors, GPCRs are polytopic membrane proteins that share a common structure with seven transmembrane segments, but sequence similarity is minimal among the most distant GPCRs. Their principal function is to [...]