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Caspase Cascade Caspase Cascade Monday, October 22, 2018
Caspases are a family of evolutionary conserved cysteine dependent aspartate-specific proteases that play crucial roles in maintaining organismal homoeostasis throughout life.Mammalian caspases are broadly classified as being inflammatory/pyroptotic (human caspase-1, 4, 5 and 12, murine caspase-1, 11 and 12), or as initiators (human and murine caspase-2, 8, 9 and human caspase-10) and [...]
Cellular Immune Responses to HBV Cellular Immune Responses to HBV Monday, October 22, 2018
HBV(Hepatitis B virus) is a member of the family Hepadnaviridae. It is a hepatotropic non-cytopathic DNA virus and is a major cause of acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. As HBV itself is currently viewed as a non-cytopathic virus, the liver pathology associated with hepatitis B is mainly thought to be due [...]
ERK5 Signaling ERK5 Signaling Tuesday, October 16, 2018
ERK5 (also known as the BMK1 (Big MAP Kinase-1)) is an atypical MAPK that can be activated in vivo by a variety of stimuli, including Serum, Growth factors including EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor), NGF (Nerve Growth Factor) and BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), GPCRs (G-Protein Coupled Receptors), Lysophosphatidic Acid, Neurotrophins and Phorbol ester [...]
BAD Phosphorylation BAD Phosphorylation Monday, October 15, 2018
BAD (BCL2 Associated Death Promoter) is a pro-apoptotic critical regulatory component of the intrinsic cell death machinery that exerts its death-promoting effect upon heterodimerization with the antiapoptotic proteins of the BCL2 family defined by conserved regions of identity called BH (BCL2 homology) domains .Members of the BCL2 (B-Cell CLL/Lymphoma-2) family are intracellular [...]
Ceramide Pathway Ceramide Pathway Monday, October 15, 2018
The SM (Sphingomyelin) pathway is an evolutionarily conserved stress response system linking diverse environmental stresses (Ultraviolet, Heat Shock, Oxidative Stress, and Ionizing Radiation) to cellular effector pathways. Ceramide is the second messenger in this system and can be generated either by hydrolysis of SM through SM-specific PLC (Phospholipase-C) termed SMases (Sphingomyelinases) or [...]
Enteropathogenic E.coli Induced Diarrhea Enteropathogenic E.coli Induced Diarrhea Monday, October 15, 2018
Pathogenic microbes subvert normal host-cell processes to create a specialized niche, which enhances their survival. A common and recurring target of pathogens is the host cell's cytoskeleton, which is utilized by these microbes for purposes that include attachment, entry into cells, movement within and between cells, vacuole formation and remodeling, and avoidance [...]
Alternative Complement Pathway Alternative Complement Pathway Friday, October 12, 2018
The complement system refers to a series of proteins circulating in the blood and bathing the fluids surrounding tissues. The proteins circulate in an inactive form, but in response to the recognition of molecular components of microorganism, they become sequentially activated, working in a cascade where in the binding of one protein [...]
CCR5 Pathway in Macrophages CCR5 Pathway in Macrophages Friday, October 12, 2018
CCR5 (Chemokine-CC Motif-Receptor-5) is a member of the chemokine receptor subclass of the GPCR (G-Protein-Coupled Receptor) superfamily. It regulates leukocyte chemotaxis in inflammation and serves as a coreceptor for M-tropic (Macrophage tropic) HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) entry. It serves as a functional receptor for various inflammatory CC-chemokines, including MIP1Alpha (Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1-Alpha), [...]