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JNK Pathway JNK Pathway Wednesday, August 17, 2016
MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases) are Serine-threonine protein Kinases that are activated in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and mediate signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. MAPKs are expressed in multiple cell types including Cardiomyocytes, Vascular Endothelial cells, and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Three major MAPKs include ERKs [...]
Rho Family GTPases Rho Family GTPases Wednesday, March 23, 2016
The Rho family of small GTP-binding proteins comprises a group of signaling molecules that are activated by a variety of Growth factors, Cytokines, Adhesion molecules, Hormones, Integrins, G-proteins and other biologically active substances and regulate a wide range of biological processes, including Reorganization of the Actin Cytoskeleton, Transcriptional Regulation, Vesicle Trafficking, Morphogenesis, Neutrophil activation, [...]
Integrin Pathway Integrin Pathway Monday, February 08, 2016
Adhesive interactions between cells and ECM (Extracellular Matrix) proteins play a vital role in biological processes, including cell survival, growth, differentiation, migration, inflammatory responses, platelet aggregation, tissue repair and tumor invasion (Ref.4) and perturbing this coordination can lead to events such as malignant transformation. The major groups of proteins mediating these interactions [...]
Cytokine Network Cytokine Network Wednesday, December 02, 2015
The immune system recognizes the presence of pathogens by several proteins that bind to molecules secreted by the pathogen or carried on their surface. The cells responsible for these immune responses include the B-Cells, T-Cells, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, endothelial cells, or mast cells (Ref.1). These cells have distinct roles in the [...]
BMP Pathway BMP Pathway Tuesday, December 01, 2015
The fate of neural precursors in the developing brain is believed to be determined by intrinsic cellular programs and by external cues, including the cytokines. BMPs (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins) are a large subclass (more than 20 members) of the TGF-Beta (Transforming Growth Factor-Beta) super family that is active in many tissues under [...]
Akt Signaling Akt Signaling Sunday, April 19, 2015
Akt (v-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene)/ PKB (Protein Kinase-B) is a Serine/threonine Kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of Apoptosis and stimulation of cell proliferation. Three mammalian isoforms are currently known: Akt1/PKB- Alpha, Akt2/PKB-Beta and Akt3/PKB-Gamma. All three isoforms of Akt share a common structure of three domains. [...]
IL-4 Pathway IL-4 Pathway Monday, March 30, 2015
IL-4 (Interleukin-4) is a T-Cell derived multifunctional cytokine with a molecular weight of approximately 15 to 19 kD that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses. It plays an important role in modulating the balance of TH (T Helper) cell subsets, favouring expansion of the TH2 lineage relative to [...]
IL-6 Pathway IL-6 Pathway Monday, March 30, 2015
IL-6 (Interleukin-6) is a cytokine that provokes a broad range of cellular and physiological responses, including the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis by regulating cell growth, gene activation, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. IL-6 signals through a receptor composed of two different subunits, an alpha subunit that produces ligand specificity and GP [...]