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ERBB Family Pathway ERBB Family Pathway Tuesday, July 17, 2018
The ErbB (Erythroblastic Leukemia Viral Oncogene Homolog) or EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) family of transmembrane RTKs (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases) plays an important role during the growth and development of a number of organs including the heart, the mammary gland, and the central nervous system. In addition, ErbB overexpression is associated with tumorigenesis [...]
NGF Pathway NGF Pathway Tuesday, July 17, 2018
One of the most fundamental issues in current biology is how to maintain the critical balance between cell survival and death, both during development and in adulthood. Unrestrained cell division and survival leads to various forms of tumor, while excessive or premature cell death may lead to a variety of diseases such [...]
PDGF Pathway PDGF Pathway Tuesday, July 17, 2018
Directed cell migration is a critical feature of several physiological and pathological processes, including development, wound healing, atherosclerosis, immunity, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The migratory response involves actin cytoskeleton reorganization, polarization, cell adhesion and detachment. Thus, migration requires cell communication with adjacent cells and with ECM (Extracellular Matrix Components) and is triggered by [...]
TLR-TRIF Pathway TLR-TRIF Pathway Tuesday, July 17, 2018
TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are key molecules of the innate immune system that recognize molecular patterns on microorganisms and rapidly alert the host to the presence of potentially dangerous organisms. When TLRs on the surface of an immune cell are engaged, two major events are triggered downstream. First, all TLRs trigger the secretion [...]
Muscular Dystrophies and Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex Muscular Dystrophies and Dystrophin-Glycoprotein Complex Tuesday, July 17, 2018
Muscular dystrophy is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement. This group of diseases has three features in common: they are hereditary, they are progressive and each causes a characteristic, selective pattern of weakness. Some forms of MD [...]
Huntington’s Disease Pathway Huntington’s Disease Pathway Tuesday, July 17, 2018
Huntington's disease, also known as Huntington Chorea, is a dominantly inherited Neurodegenerative disorder featuring progressively worsening Chorea, Psychiatric disturbances and Cognitive Impairment due to neuronal cell loss in the Basal ganglia and the Cerebral cortex. It affects about one in 10,000 individuals and is transmitted in an Autosomal dominant fashion. George Huntington, [...]
nNOS Signaling in Skeletal Muscle nNOS Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Tuesday, July 17, 2018
NO (Nitric Oxide) is formed endogenously by a family of enzymes known as NOS (NO Synthases). The distribution of different isoforms of NOS is largely related to their respective functions. Three distinct isoforms of NOS have been identified: nNOS (also known as NOSI and NOS-1) being the isoform first found (and predominating) [...]
ER-Mediated Phagocytosis ER-Mediated Phagocytosis Tuesday, July 17, 2018
Phagocytosis, the process by which cells engulf foreign particles, occurs in eukaryotes ranging from unicellular organisms, which use it for nutrition, to mammals, where it plays a key role in innate immunity. The remarkable phagocytic capacity of Macrophages is illustrated by their ability to internalize particles that can be as large as [...]