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Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Friday, July 18, 2014
Type 1 diabetes, formerly termed IDDM (Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus), is a chronic organ-specific autoimmune disorder caused by proinflammatory autoreactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which mediate progressive and selective damage of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells.
Agrin Interactions at Neuromuscular Junction Agrin Interactions at Neuromuscular Junction Monday, June 23, 2014
The development of the NMJ (Neuromuscular Junction) is triggered by agrin, a signaling factor that is deposited by the nerve terminal at the site of contact with the muscle cell. Motor neuron-derived agrin induces many aspects of synaptic differentiation and is required for the postsynaptic localization of many synapse-specific basal lamina, transmembrane, [...]
GSK3 Signaling GSK3 Signaling Wednesday, June 18, 2014
GSK3 (Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3) is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase found in all eukaryotes. Identified originally as a regulator of glycogen metabolism, GSK3 acts as a downstream regulatory switch for numerous signaling pathways, including cellular responses to WNT, Growth Factors, Insulin, RTK (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases), Hedgehog pathways, and GPCR [...]
Embryonic Cell Differentiation into Cardiac Lineages Embryonic Cell Differentiation into Cardiac Lineages Friday, June 13, 2014
Stem Cells are undifferentiated cells with broad developmental potential. They are able to generate various specialized cell types and, in addition, have the capacity to self-renew and thus to produce undifferentiated progeny that retain Stem Cell features. These properties allow Stem Cells to provide developing organs with appropriate numbers of differentiated cells [...]
Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency in Mouse Friday, June 13, 2014
ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) are a population of Pluripotent, Self-renewing cells which can proliferate indefinitely and contribute to the formation of basically all cell types in vitro and in vivo. The study of mammalian ESCs, especially Mouse ESCs, has provided valuable insights into early embryogenesis in mammals. Mouse ES cells are derived [...]
Androgen Signaling Androgen Signaling Thursday, May 29, 2014
Androgens mediate a wide range of developmental and physiological responses and are especially important in male sexual differentiation and pubertal sexual maturation, the maintenance of spermatogenesis, and male gonadotropin regulation (Ref.1). The principle steroidal androgens, testosterone and its metabolite DHT (5-Alpha-Dihydrotestosterone), mediate their biological effects predominantly through binding to the AR (Androgen [...]
ATM Pathway ATM Pathway Monday, May 19, 2014
ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein) belongs to a family of Kinases that have sequence homology to PI3K (Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase). ATM is a key regulator of multiple signaling cascades which respond to DNA strand breaks induced by damaging agents IR (Ionizing Radiation), radiometric agents or by normal processes. These responses involve the activation of cell cycle Chk [...]
Human Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency Human Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency Sunday, May 11, 2014
ESCs (Embryonic Stem Cells) are Pluripotent cells capable of differentiating into any cell type of the body. Only three species of Mammals have yielded long-term cultures of self-renewing ESCs- Mice, Monkeys, and Humans. Human ESCs are derived from Blastocysts, multicellular structures originating from four cleavages of fertilized oocytes. Isolated from the ICM [...]