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GnRH Signaling GnRH Signaling Monday, February 18, 2019
Normal mammalian sexual maturation and reproductive functions require the integration and precise coordination of hormones at the hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal levels. The hypothalamic GnRH (Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone), also called LHRH (Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone), is a key regulator in this system (the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis), that plays a decisive role in the [...]
Glioblastoma Multiforme Glioblastoma Multiforme Monday, February 18, 2019
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is biologically aggressive neoplasms which have an elevated, often aberrant, proliferative capacity with a diffuse pattern of brain invasion. It is the most malignant Astrocytic tumor, composed of poorly differentiated neoplastic astrocytes.Glioblastoma Multiforme falls under the Grade-IV category. Glioblastoma Multiforme or the WHO Grade-IV Astrocytoma is divided into two [...]
Glioma Invasiveness Glioma Invasiveness Monday, February 18, 2019
Gliomas are the most common intracranial malignant tumors in humans, and high-grade Gliomas in particular pose a unique challenge due to their propensity for proliferation and tissue invasion. The invasion of neoplastic cells into healthy brain tissue is a pathologic hallmark of Gliomas and contributes to the failure of current therapeutic modalities [...]
Germ Cell-Sertoli Cell Junction Dynamics Germ Cell-Sertoli Cell Junction Dynamics Sunday, February 17, 2019
Sertoli-Germ (Spermatid)-cell interactions affect spermatogenesis at the molecular, cellular and biochemical levels. Germ cell movement within the epithelium is vital because germ cells, if induced to release into the tubule lumen prematurely, will be unable to fertilize the ovum. On the other hand, if germ cells are forced to remain attached to [...]
Hedgehog Signaling in Mammals Hedgehog Signaling in Mammals Wednesday, February 06, 2019
Controlled cell proliferation is a predominant theme in normal embryonic and post-embryonic development, and, in many instances, cell-type specification and cell proliferation are intimately coupled. Several secreted intercellular signaling proteins that behave as morphogens during pattern formation are also implicated in the regulation of the cell cycle. Hedgehogs (Hhs) are one such [...]
CCR3 Pathway in Eosinophils CCR3 Pathway in Eosinophils Thursday, January 24, 2019
Human eosinophils are crucial effector cells implicated in a number of chronic inflammatory reactions, associated with bronchial asthma, allergic-inflammatory diseases, and parasitic infections.The chemotactic response of eosinophils is mostly mediated by CCR3 (CC Chemokine Receptor-3), a member of the G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane receptor family, linked to heterotrimeric G-Proteins. Although its expression was [...]
Estrogen-mediated S-Phase Entry Estrogen-mediated S-Phase Entry Tuesday, January 22, 2019
Estrogens are a class of steroid hormones that play a central role in reproduction, and are regarded as the powerful female hormones that make a girl develop into a woman capable of reproduction. Estrogenic steroids, that include: E1 (Estrone), E2 (Estradiol/17-beta Estradiol) and E3 (Estriol), regulate cellular functions in a wide variety [...]
Granzyme Pathway Granzyme Pathway Monday, January 21, 2019
Killer lymphocytes are key players in the effector arm of the immune response that eliminate cells infected with intracellular pathogens and transformed tumor cells. Killer cells in both adaptive and innate immunity-T cells (CTLS) and natural killer (NK) cells, respectively, use the same basic mechanisms for destroying their targets, although they are [...]