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Angiopoietin-TIE2 Signaling Angiopoietin-TIE2 Signaling Tuesday, January 16, 2018
Development of a functional cardiovascular system is dependent on the regulated proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells in two discrete processes known as vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new capillaries from pre-existing vessels, whereas vasculogenesis is de-novo capillary formation from EPCs (Endothelial Precursor Cells). New capillaries arise from [...]
AMPK Enzyme Complex Pathway AMPK Enzyme Complex Pathway Tuesday, January 16, 2018
One of the key functions of catabolic metabolism is to maintain high levels of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and cells rapidly respond to any stress that threatens to lower ATP levels by arresting non-essential ATP-utilizing functions and stimulating available ATP-generating pathways. A central player in this system is the AMPK (AMP (Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate)-Activated [...]
Antigen Processing and Presentation by MHCs Antigen Processing and Presentation by MHCs Tuesday, January 16, 2018
In order to initiate a specific immune response to an infectious agent, the immune system must be able to wade through the sea of molecules that are associated with pathogenic invasion and isolate particular protein products that will sharpen the efforts of host defense. Implicit to this model of counteraction is the [...]
B-Cell Development B-Cell Development Monday, January 15, 2018
B lymphoid cells are essential for the humoral immune response by producing a diverse range of antigen-specific antibodies. Antibody-mediated immunity is provided by two distinctive B cell lineages that diverge early in life. The better-known conventional, or B2, B cells provide adaptive immunity by producing high-affinity pathogen-specific antibodies, typically in a T [...]
BMP Pathway BMP Pathway Monday, January 15, 2018
BMPs (Bone morphogenetic proteins) are the members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of secreted signaling molecules [Ref.1]. Transduction of BMP signal involves two types of transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors: type I and type II [Ref.1]. BMP2, BMP4, BMP5,BMP6, BMP7, BMP8, BMP9, BMP10, BMP12, BMP13 and BMP14 (Bone morphogenetic protein 2, [...]
APRIL Pathway APRIL Pathway Monday, January 15, 2018
APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand, also known as TRDL-1, TALL-2, and TNFSF13), is a member of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) superfamily, with homologous structure and function to several other cytokines in this family. It is a cytokine which is over-expressed by transformed cells and could stimulate cellular proliferation. It has two receptors [...]
BAFF in B-Cell Signaling BAFF in B-Cell Signaling Monday, January 15, 2018
BAFF (B-cell activating factor), is a member of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) ligand family that plays important roles in B-cell homeostasis, tolerance, and malignancy [Ref.1). It is also known as BLyS (B lymphocyte stimulator) protein, TALL-1 (TNF and apoptosis ligand-related leukocyte-expressed ligand-1), zTNF4, CD257, TNFSF13B, TNFS20 (TNF superfamily member) and THANK [...]
TWEAK Pathway TWEAK Pathway Monday, January 15, 2018
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily (TNFSF) that is induced in a variety of cell types in situations of tissue injury. It is expressed in various tissues including the intestine, pancreas, lung, brain, skeletal muscle, heart and vasculature. The [...]