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Akt Signaling Akt Signaling Sunday, April 19, 2015
Akt (v-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene)/ PKB (Protein Kinase-B) is a Serine/threonine Kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of Apoptosis and stimulation of cell proliferation. Three mammalian isoforms are currently known: Akt1/PKB- Alpha, Akt2/PKB-Beta and Akt3/PKB-Gamma. All three isoforms of Akt share a common structure of three domains. [...]
IL-4 Pathway IL-4 Pathway Monday, March 30, 2015
IL-4 (Interleukin-4) is a T-Cell derived multifunctional cytokine with a molecular weight of approximately 15 to 19 kD that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses. It plays an important role in modulating the balance of TH (T Helper) cell subsets, favouring expansion of the TH2 lineage relative to [...]
IL-6 Pathway IL-6 Pathway Monday, March 30, 2015
IL-6 (Interleukin-6) is a cytokine that provokes a broad range of cellular and physiological responses, including the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and oncogenesis by regulating cell growth, gene activation, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. IL-6 signals through a receptor composed of two different subunits, an alpha subunit that produces ligand specificity and GP [...]
IL-3 Pathway IL-3 Pathway Wednesday, March 25, 2015
IL-3 (Interleukin-3) is a cytokine that regulates haemopoiesis, the formation of blood cells in the body. IL-3, also called multi-CSF (multi-lineage colony stimulating factor), is produced by T cells and mast cells, after activation with mitogens or antigens. The molecular weight of IL-3, a protein of 140 amino acids, ranges from 14 [...]
IL-10 Pathway IL-10 Pathway Wednesday, March 25, 2015
IL-10 (Interleukin-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine with important immunoregulatory functions whose actions influence activities of many of the cell-types in the immune system. It is a cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties, repressing the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-Alpha (Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha), IL-6 (Interleukin-6) and IL-1 (Interleukin-1) by activated macrophages. Functional [...]
Actin Nucleation and Branching Actin Nucleation and Branching Tuesday, March 24, 2015
The actin family is a diverse and evolutionarily ancient group of proteins that provide the supportive framework to the three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic cells. It provides the forces that enable the cell to adopt a variety of shapes and to undertake directed movements. Certain cell types, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocyte/macrophages, and [...]
IL-1 Pathway IL-1 Pathway Tuesday, March 24, 2015
IL-1 (Interleukin-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine that stimulates a broad spectrum of immune and inflammatory responses. IL-1 is produced by activated macrophages, endothelia cells, B-Cells, and fibroblast cells. It induces inflammatory responses, edema, promotes the production of Prostaglandins, IL-2, and the growth of leukocytes (Ref.1). There are two forms of IL-1 encoded [...]
FAK1 Signaling FAK1 Signaling Monday, March 16, 2015
Engagement of integrin receptors with extracellular ligands gives rise to the formation of complex multi-protein structures that link the ECM (Extracellular Matrix) to the cytoplasmic actin cytoskeleton and signaling proteins including Talin, Alpha-actinin, Vinculin, Zyxin, Paxillin and FAK (Focal Adhesion Kinase). These adhesive complexes are dynamic, often heterogeneous structures, varying in size [...]