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mTOR Pathway mTOR Pathway Wednesday, March 21, 2018
mTOR (Mammalian Target of Rapamycin) is a 289-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase and a member of the PIKK (Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-related Kinase) family. The protein consists of a Catalytic Kinase domain, an FRB (FKBP12–Rapamycin Binding) domain, a putative Auto-inhibitory domain (Repressor domain) near the C-terminus and up to 20 tandemly repeated HEAT motifs at [...]
MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of Young) MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of Young) Wednesday, March 21, 2018
monogenic form of diabetes, MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of Young)--primarily results from defects that affect the functioning of islet Beta-cells and the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. This in turn leads to hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, which can cause the body to become resistant to insulin. The impaired secretion of insulin [...]
Mitochondrial Protein Import Pathways Mitochondrial Protein Import Pathways Wednesday, March 21, 2018
Mitochondrial precursor proteins can be separated into two main classes. Preproteins that are destined for the mitochondrial matrix, as well as a number of proteins of the inner membrane and intermembrane space, carry N-terminal cleavable extensions, termed presequences. These positively charged extensions function as targeting signals that interact with the mitochondrial import [...]
Mitochondrial Apoptosis Mitochondrial Apoptosis Tuesday, March 20, 2018
Apoptosis is a naturally occurring process by which a cell is directed to Programmed Cell Death.The Mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis functions in response to various types of intracellular stress including Growth Factor withdrawal, DNA damage, unfolding stresses in the Endoplasmic reticulum and Death Receptor stimulation.
MIF Regulation of Innate Immune Cells MIF Regulation of Innate Immune Cells Tuesday, March 20, 2018
The innate immune response to bacteria is essential for survival but the systemic release of inflammatory mediators results in the life-threatening Septic-shock reaction. Macrophages are essential effector cells of innate immunity that play a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of invasive microorganisms. Mediators released by activated macrophages orchestrate innate and [...]
Blood Coagulation Cascade Blood Coagulation Cascade Tuesday, March 20, 2018
Coagulation is a dynamic process which involves the regulated sequence of proteolytic activation of a series of zymogens to achieve appropriate and timely haemostasis in an injured vessel, in an environment that overwhelmingly favours an anticoagulant state.
Calpain Protease Regulates Cellular Mechanics Calpain Protease Regulates Cellular Mechanics Thursday, March 15, 2018
Metastatic tumor progression, the process by which tumor cells disseminate from their primary site of development, is dependent upon the disruption of both cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. These in turn are governed by the multiprotein complexes of Cadherin-dependent adheren junctions and integrin-linked FA (Focal Adhesion) attachment sites. Disruption of these complexes leads [...]
CD28 Signaling in T-Helper Cell CD28 Signaling in T-Helper Cell Tuesday, March 13, 2018
CD28 (Antigen CD28) is characterized as a co-receptor for the TCR (T-Cell Receptor)/CD3 (CD3 Antigen) complex and is responsible for providing the co-stimulatory signal required for T-cell activation. CD28 also act as a receptor independent of the TCR and can initiate signaling events without concomitant TCR ligation. Priming of naive T-cells in [...]