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Akt Signaling Akt Signaling Tuesday, September 16, 2014
Akt (v-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene)/ PKB (Protein Kinase-B) is a Serine/threonine Kinase that is involved in mediating various biological responses, such as inhibition of Apoptosis and stimulation of cell proliferation. Three mammalian isoforms are currently known: Akt1/PKB- Alpha, Akt2/PKB-Beta and Akt3/PKB-Gamma. All three isoforms of Akt share a common structure of three domains. [...]
Granzyme Pathway Granzyme Pathway Tuesday, September 09, 2014
Lymphocytes play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses. A key function of CL (Cytotoxic Lymphocytes) is to detect and eliminate potentially harmful cells by inducing them to undergo apoptosis. The induction of cell death by CTLs (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes) or NK (Natural Killer) cells is one of the main ways by which [...]
CXCR4 Pathway CXCR4 Pathway Tuesday, September 09, 2014
The Chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a 352 amino acid rhodopsin-like GPCR and selectively binds the CXC chemokine Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF-1) also known as CXCL12. Classically, two alternatively spliced isoforms of SDF have been identified. SDF-1Alpha is an 89 amino acid protein that is the predominantly expressed form of SDF-1 while [...]
Nur77-Induced AICD in Macrophage Nur77-Induced AICD in Macrophage Thursday, September 04, 2014
PCD (Programmed Cell Death), often referred to as Apoptosis, is a genetically regulated, self-destructive cellular process found in metazoans. It eliminates individual cells when they are no longer needed in development, tissue remodeling, or immune regulation, as well as in various diseases. In immune cells, Apoptosis is a key phenomenon in AICD [...]
MAPK Signaling MAPK Signaling Tuesday, August 19, 2014
Intracellular signaling cascades are the main routes of communication between the Plasma membrane and regulatory targets in various intracellular compartments. Sequential activation of Kinases is a common mechanism of signal transduction in many cellular processes. During the past decade, several related intracellular signaling cascades have been elucidated, which are collectively known as [...]
Checkpoint Comparative Pathways Checkpoint Comparative Pathways Tuesday, August 19, 2014
Cells activate checkpoint pathways in response to DNA damage or a block to replication, that prevent cell cycle progression by inhibiting the basic cell cycle machinery until the problem is fixed. Various forms of DNA damage and various treatments that block replication trigger these checkpoints. Recent work on the mechanisms of DNA [...]
Signaling Involved in Cardiac Hypertrophy Signaling Involved in Cardiac Hypertrophy Sunday, August 17, 2014
Myocardial hypertrophy is an adaptational response of the heart to increased work load, but it is also associated with a high risk of cardiac mortality due to its established role in the development of cardiac failure, one of the leading causes of death in developed countries (Ref.1). The hypertrophic growth of the [...]
Androgen Signaling Androgen Signaling Tuesday, August 12, 2014
Androgens are recognized as genotropic inducers of a number of physiological functions mainly associated with the development of sexual characteristics. Androgens promote the growth and differentiation of prostate cells through ligand activation of the AR (Androgen Receptor) (Ref.1&2).The AR, upon activation