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GSK3 Signaling GSK3 Signaling Monday, February 24, 2014
GSK3 (Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3) is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase found in all eukaryotes. Identified originally as a regulator of glycogen metabolism, GSK3 acts as a downstream regulatory switch for numerous signaling pathways, including cellular responses to WNT, Growth Factors, Insulin, RTK (Receptor Tyrosine Kinases), Hedgehog pathways, and GPCR [...]
14-3-3 and Cell Cycle Regulation 14-3-3 and Cell Cycle Regulation Tuesday, February 18, 2014
The 14-3-3 proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins that play important roles in a wide range of cellular processes including signal transduction, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and checkpoint activation within all eukaryotic cells. These 28–33 kDa helical molecules include nine isotypes (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Eta, Sigma, Tau, and [...]
4-1BB Pathway 4-1BB Pathway Monday, February 17, 2014
The activation of a naive T-Cell requires two signals: ligation of the TCR (T-Cell Receptor) with the MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex)/peptide complex on the APC (Antigen Presenting Cell) and cross-linking of costimulatory receptors on the T-Cell with the corresponding ligands on the APC. Cross-linking of CD28 on T-Cells with B7-1 and/or B7-2 [...]
Alzheimer’s Disease Pathway Alzheimer’s Disease Pathway Thursday, February 13, 2014
AD (Alzheimer’s Disease) is a neurodegenerative disorder leading to amnesia, cognitive impairment, and senile dementia. Two types of lesions characterize the disease: SPs (Amyloid or Senile Plaques) resulting from the extracellular aggregation of ABeta (Amyloid Beta) peptide, which is derived from a ubiquitous type I transmembrane protein named APP (Amyloid Precursor Protein), [...]
Angiopoietin-TIE2 Signaling Angiopoietin-TIE2 Signaling Wednesday, January 29, 2014
Development of a functional cardiovascular system is dependent on the regulated proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endothelial cells in two discrete processes known as vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Vasculogenesis involves the formation of heart and large vessels as well as primary capillary networks. Following vasculogenesis, endothelial cells proliferate and migrate into avascular tissues, [...]
Protein Acetylation and Deacetylation Protein Acetylation and Deacetylation Wednesday, January 29, 2014
Eukaryotic transcription is a highly regulated process, and acetylation plays a major role in this regulation. Acetylation can occur on histones, DNA-binding TF (Transcription Factors), acetylases, nuclear import factors, non-nuclear proteins (Alpha-tubulin) and proteins that shuttle from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, such as the Importin-Alpha family of nuclear import factors. Acetylation [...]
APRIL Pathway APRIL Pathway Wednesday, January 29, 2014
The TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) family has an important role in inducing various biological responses such as cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and death (Ref.1). TNF ligand family members are synthesized as transmembrane proteins, and cleavage of the membrane-anchored proteins from the cell surface is frequently observed. APRIL (A Proliferation-Inducing Ligand) also known [...]
BAFF in B-Cell Signaling BAFF in B-Cell Signaling Wednesday, January 29, 2014
Members of the TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) ligand family play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, modulation of immune response, and induction of inflammation. The BAFF (B-Cell Activating Factor) [also known as BLYS (B-Lymphocyte Stimulator), TALL1 (TNF- and ApoL-Related Leukocyte Expressed Ligand-1) or THANK (TNF [...]